Interstitial Lung Disease Diagnosis: An Overview
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Interstitial lung disease diagnosis — a heterogeneous group of diseases that have one thing in common: they all affect the interstitial lung tissue, including blood vessels extending therein. They usually begin slowly and gradually and take place in the chronic form, although almost all of them are described and acute form.
First, in response to injury alveolocytes develops acute alveolitis. If it is not permitted, the inflammation proceeds to interstitium and passing it into the capillaries and eventually leads to fibrosis, alveolar deformation, reduction and reduced ventilation lung diffusion capacity. Often also affects bronchioles and developing bronchiolitis obliterans with carnification, who is currently also referred to as interstitial lung diseases.
Despite the etiological differences, interstitial lung disease diagnosis have similar clinical, radiological and histological picture.
Histological examination usually reveal nonspecific pneumonia interstitial lung disease diagnosis: alternation of inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis fields where at a later stage there are small, similar to cysts, smooth-walled cavity (honeycombing). Nonspecific these changes named because of their uniformity and flexibility, regardless of the cause.
The main of the interstitial lung disease diagnosis in the USA
There are about 150 different etiology diseases affecting interstitial lung disease diagnosis either primary or secondary, as a result of the process system, such as, for example, when collagenosis. Arrange a number of such different diseases — a difficult task. X-ray pictures cannot be taken as a basis, since it is identical not only in most interstitial lung disease, but in some diseases, not included in this group. The results are high-resolution CT scans are more specific, but there, too, cannot form the basis for classification. One classification interstitial lung disease is reduced to that of separated into two groups (interstitial lung disease of known and unknown etiology), and each of these groups, in turn, divided into two groups depending on whether accompanying lung granulomatous inflammation.
Among the interstitial diseases of known etiology constitute the largest group of interstitial lung disease diagnosis caused by the inhalation of organic and inorganic dust and toxic gases (Ch. «Farmer’s lung», «pulmonary eosinophilia» and «Diseases of the lung caused by harmful environmental factors»).
For interstitial diseases of unknown etiology include acute interstitial pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, interstitial lung disease diagnosis, as well as many other more rare diseases.
Accurate diagnosis in most interstitial lung disease diagnosis is possible only after an open lung biopsy. Exceptions are pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of inorganic dust, as in this case the cause of the disease can usually be set on the basis of professional history.
In the future, as the establishment of correspondences between the histological and radiological changes are likely to increase the diagnostic value of high resolution CT.
So etiological factors are numerous interstitial lung disease diagnosis (and many of them do not know), but the pathological changes in the lung in these diseases are the same. Therefore, a detailed description of interstitial lung disease is made on the example of the most common of them — idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis. Also on this disease focused modern studies of the mechanisms of inflammation and fibrosis in interstitial lung diseases.