Why is sore back? Possible causes of low back pain
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Low back pain is familiar to almost everyone. Enough for a long time to sit in an uncomfortable position to experience discomfort in the lumbar region. But the expression of back pain usually have very specific reasons and are a signal of the disease being treated. The answer to the question why the sore lower back — the first step to getting rid of the disease.
Causes of primary and secondary low back pain
Causes of back pain tens. According to the medical classification, distinguish primary and secondary pain affecting the lumbar region.
- Primary syndrome low back pain (musculoskeletal changes of morpho-functional character) is the cause of most cases where the back pain in the lumbar region. In the first place, there are degenerative-dystrophic changes in various parts of the spine:
The low back pain loss of cartilage and bone tissue, having degenerative character. Affected intervertebral disc, adjacent vertebrae develop spondylosis.
Spondylarthrosis — a form of osteoarthritis, in which the loss affects the intervertebral joints (facet), responsible for the mobility of the spine, or synovial.
- The secondary syndrome can have a variety of causes, even more, low back pain:
- Scoliosis, in a simple way — curvature of the spine, and some other growing pains;
- Bone lesions associated with metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia;
- Non-infectious inflammation, such as ankylosing spondylitis (another name — ankylosing spondylitis), Reiter’s syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis;
- The tumor is located on the vertebrae directly into the spinal cord or in the retroperitoneal space, primary or caused by the formation of metastases;
Fracture of any or more spinal vertebrae — one of the biggest reasons why the sore low back pain;
Infectious diseases of various kinds, leading to the defeat as the vertebrae and intervertebral discs: brucellosis, tuberculosis, purulent inflammation of tissue in the epidural (epidural abscess);
Stroke condition with acute spinal blood circulation, can also cause a feeling that hurts the waist;
Certain diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular, acute appendicitis atypical occurrence, ileus.
Also, pain can wear a reflection of character; This situation arises when a number of diseases of organs located in the pelvic area. These include, first and foremost, renal colic and gynecological infectious diseases (sexually transmitted). Thus, reflected pain cause gonorrhea and trichomoniasis, chlamydia, Andechs, anaplasmosis.
Acute and chronic low back pain
Pain in the lumbar region is also divided into acute and chronic pain caused by various diseases of the nerves or the spinal column. It is also frequently observed the so-called displaced pain: in this case translates the pain of a deep-seated internal organs and structures of the body; in other words, the patient seems to be that sore lower back, but, in fact, struck a completely different part of the body. Most often, back pain in the lumbar region, when this area is projected onto the pain of the pelvic organs, kidneys, pancreas, colon, or tumors located behind the peritoneum.
Many patients do not know what to do if a sore lower back. But there is a clear recommendation, what exactly do here: to self-medicate. Causes of pain are so diverse that a correct diagnosis can only be qualified.
Possible causes of acute low back pain
- Pain is accompanied by worse the muscle strain. In this case, the pain signals are located in the back, they are fed to the long muscle spasm. The pain does not tend to move in the groin or leg. Human mobility is limited.
- One of the most frequent and severe consequences on the causes of severe back pain — a fracture of the spine (vertebral fractures, including compression). This usually occurs when an unsuccessful drop, bend back and other injuries; but if a patient diagnosed with osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, Paget’s disease, are tumors and metastases in the spinal area or other disorders of the skeletal system, vertebral fractures can occur literally «out of the blue,» and even momentary sensations patient at the time of fracture.
- No less unpleasant situation in which acute lower back pain — occurred in the spinal intervertebral disc displacement of the department. As the frequency of losses, allocated areas:
- LV-SII — most often;
- LIV-LV — the second frequency;
- LIII- LIV and higher — more rare.
Symptoms include severe pain, a forced position of the body, restriction of mobility. To participate in the pathological process of the nerve roots indicate:
- radicular low back pain, usually one-sided;
- disorders of sensation (numbness, increase or decrease in sensitivity);
- reduction or disappearance of the Achilles reflex (in the case of root lesion S, or S2);
- reduction in the intensity or absence of knee-jerk (points to the affected areas of L3-L4).
The general trend — the influence of bulging intervertebral disc is located on the lower level of the spine (eg, LIV-LV offset is abnormal spine L5). With the defeat of cauda equina (horse’s tail) impairs the function of the bladder, rectum. Also, such a state may occur when a strong protrusion of the spinal disc.
- Acute low back pain in the lumbar region at the facet syndrome: in this case the drive is not affected, and the pain is a result of compression of the spine at the exit from the spinal canal. The most frequently observed type of unilateral facet syndrome in the zone root L5; arises on the basis of increasing the intervertebral joint facets (upper and lower), and as a result, narrowing the intervertebral foramen.
- Also strong pain accompanies epidural abscess — a serious condition that requires immediate diagnosis and immediate treatment. The most common inflammatory process develops in the thoracic area of the spine; the pain is especially severe when mechanical stress on the area of pathology (pressing, tapping). If there are signs of spinal cord compression, highly recommended for any therapeutic measures, including surgery.
- Another reason why lower back pain can be a disease of the hip joint — primarily coxarthrosis. In this case, characterized by pain radiating to the lower part of the waist, buttocks, and feet to the knees.
Diseases in which characteristic chronic low back pain
- Spondylosis deformations. This is a disease in which the degenerative changes in the lumbar vertebrae, calcification of the ligamentous apparatus and the further growth of the bone; bony outgrowths press on roots and spinal canal narrowing. In the event that nagging back, pain is accompanied by weakness in the legs, numbness, and other neurological symptoms should consider the possibility of intermittent claudication syndrome, the cause of which can serve as a narrowing of the spinal canal. It is necessary to survey the results of which established the final diagnosis.
- Ankylosing spondylarthritis (or ankylosing spondylitis). At an early stage, it is characterized by limited mobility, especially in the morning, reduced movements of the chest when breathing. Present nagging back pain; It arises and progresses further curvature of the spine in the thoracic region. When X-ray abnormalities are fixed sacroiliac joints: the destruction, change of structure, «bamboo» spine. Careful examination and clarification of the reasons why lower back pain, since similar symptoms, and limited mobility of the lower spine can cause other diseases — Reiter’s syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, chronic colitis.
- Cancer (tumor metastases), metabolic disorders (including NBO). It is necessary to eliminate such causes of low back pain:
- metastatic carcinoma of the lung, breast, prostate and thyroid glands, kidney, gastro-intestinal tract;
- multiple myelomas (myeloma).
An exception is made by X-ray diffraction studies and myelography.
- Osteomyelitis also causes long, aching low back pain. If you suspect that the disease is carried out X-ray bone performed tuberculin skin test and determination of ESR to detect the presence / absence of tuberculosis bacteria in the body, or pyogenic (pus-producing) bacteria commonly — osteomyelitis pathogens.
- Tumors spinal cord (intradural tumors) of different types. Diseases such as lipoma, neurofibroma, meningioma can provoke constant low back pain, at first without any accompanying neurological symptoms.
Causes of back pain intermittent nature
Many diseases of the internal organs provoke periodic, sharp or nagging pain. At the same time patients have no sense of stiffness in the back, there is no clear localization of low back pain at the maximum possible range of motion increases the low back pain. When asked what to do if a sore lower back is not always, and sometimes, the answer is simple: do not wait until a sore «how to» and consult your doctor.
There is a clear influence of the pathology of an organ to a particular part of the spine. Thus, of pelvic pain may radiate to the area of the sacrum, in diseases of which lie in the lower abdomen, a waist sends (segments L3-L5), and — at the top in the upper part of the lumbar segments of a zone or lower chest area.
Disease — reasons for low back pain, and the distribution area of low back pain:
- If amazed pelvic organs, endometriosis, ovarian or uterine carcinoma, sore lower back. Men like intermittent pain can be caused by chronic prostatitis or the development of prostate carcinoma.
- Various kidney provokes low back pain in the joints of the spine and ribs.
- Tumors of the stomach, duodenum, peptic ulcers, pancreatic tumors (especially if the disease spreads beyond the peritoneum) — pain spread to spinal segments T10-L2;
- In ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis or cancer of the colon, sore lower back;
- If the back pain in the thoracic / lumbar spine, to exclude aortic dissection (a dissecting aneurysm).
What if the sore lower back? Consult your healthcare professional!
First of all, it is necessary to contact a physician or family doctor. In acute, «to scream» low back pain — to cause «first aid». If the lower back started to hurt after a fall or severe injury, it is reasonable to apply to the traumatologist. Also, when pain can get help from the experts:
- orthopedic surgeon;
- an infectious disease specialist, gastroenterologist;
- cardiologist, pulmonologist;
- gynecologist, proctologist;
- urologist, the nephrologist.
Not forbidden to appeal to a chiropractor, but preferably after the examination of specialized professionals.
Remember, if you have low back pain in the lumbar or lower, you feel strong, pulling or aching low back pain in the morning or permanently, the reason may be to find out and tell what to do, only an expert.