Ulcerative colitis: Causes, symptoms and Treatment
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Ulcerative colitis — a rare disease that affects mainly the large intestine, in which there are areas of inflammation and tissue destruction in the form of multiple bleeding ulcers. The majority of patients affected rectum from the anus, and sometimes all of the sigmoid colon completely. The disease occurs in waves, with periods of exacerbation and symptoms attenuation.
Ulcerative colitis: Causes
The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is still not clear, it is supposed influence of immunological mechanisms in the development of inflammatory processes. Contributing factors are genetic factors, family history, mutations in the genes, infectious components as directly affecting the gut inflammation, and indirectly trigger an excessive immune response to non-pathogenic form of microbes, as well as participation of autoimmune mechanisms in the formation of aggression to their own gut cells.
Children NUC emerges as one of the most common non-infectious bowel lesions, especially in the presence of allergies and certain predisposing factors.
Ulcerative colitis: Mechanism of injury
Typically, the process starts with a colon, gradually extending to the entire intestine. One-third of patients with inflammation limited rectum and sigmoid, yet one-third — in addition affected colon. The remaining loss captures the entire large intestine. Children usually occur common form of the disease.
Changes in the gut are held in several successive phases. The acute phase gives pronounced redness of the mucous, swelling and bleeding. In remission revealed atrophy of the mucosa, reduction of vascular pattern and infiltration.
Ulcerative colitis: symptoms
The degree of symptoms depends on the shape. Provided acute or chronic ulcerative colitis. Acute process appears sharp and vivid symptoms, but rarely occurs. All signs of disease can be divided into local, intestinal and general symptoms.
Local symptoms include:
- stools with mucus, blood, sometimes mixed with pus. At the same time the blood occurs as a result of injury feces ulcer surfaces, located on the surface of bright scarlet color.
- violations of the chair in the form of constipation or diarrhea. Thus diarrhea to occur three or four times a day, false urge to defecate (tenesmus) increased to 15-30 or more per day. Constipation is mainly typical for rectal form.
- intense pain in the lower abdomen, but is not very strong character, cramps, tingling, pulling pain.
- bloating, especially in the lower regions.
Common symptoms associated with ulcerative colitis:
- raising the temperature to 38 degrees due to the inflammatory bowel processes occurs when heavy processes
- weight loss, general fatigue and weakness, loss of appetite, loss of protein due to diarrhea,
- disorders of the eye in the form of lesions of the iris, choroid, or mucous membranes,
- pains of muscles and joints.
The course of the disease depends on the spread of cancer and the phase of the disease. During exacerbation of symptoms revealed most clearly, while in remission almost no complaints can not be. Especially dangerous complications connection, the process may have a progressive course.
Ulcerative colitis: Diagnostics
Diagnosis is based on the survey data, complaints and laboratory and instrumental examination. We need a general inspection and palpation of the abdomen, holding a digital rectal examination. Further appointed blood and urine tests, blood chemistry, coagulation and blood electrolytes, immunological research. It is particularly important study coprogram and sowing fecal flora.
Further appointed endoscopic examination of the colon with a preliminary preparation. Assign rektosigmoidoskopiyu, colonoscopy, with a fence piece of tissue for a biopsy. Next, X-ray examination is carried out, ergography, double-contrast.
Ulcerative colitis: Treatment
Any treatment with NUC should be done only under medical supervision. Exacerbations require immediate hospitalization. Applicable special protective regime with being in bed to reduce the intensity of manifestations and a special diet. It is based on specific principles:
- All food is cooked in boiled or baked form,
- all meals take only warm, often and in small portions,
- last meal no later than seven in the evening,
- high calorie diet, except for overweight patients. The diet should be increased amount of protein, vitamins and minerals.
- prohibited annoying and rude products, alcohol, sour and spicy dishes.
Drug treatment involves itself primarily receive special preparations — aminosalicylates. They are used on a daily basis in a particular dosage before administering to a patient in stable remission. In remission treatment continues doderzhivayuschey dose. Apply sulfosalazin and mesalazine. In severe cases, treatment with corticosteroids is connected to four weeks, with a gradual reduction in dose. In some cases, the treatment is applied immunosuppressants orally or intravenously in a hospital.
In addition, apply symptomatic agents — anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin therapy. In order to prevent exacerbations require strict diet and supportive care.
Ulcerative colitis: Forecast
The course and prognosis of the disease depends on the extent and severity of the process. There may be rare exacerbation of persistent remission, and can be continuously progressive course, and constant aggravation. Without treatment, patients can suffer from intestinal bleeding, perforation and development of peritonitis, sepsis, severe dehydration. The most difficult is the prognosis for children, because their immune system is still forming and the intestines are very vulnerable and delicate. At UC up to 40% of patients have a disability.