Myoclonus: Causes, Pathogenesis and Treatment
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Myoclonus — a recurring convulsive twitches in some large muscle groups. There may be physiologically or in the process of falling asleep in a dream, in a state of fright. Pathological myoclonus occur in lesions of the cerebral cortex of different origin belong to the category of hyperkinesis — violent involuntary movements.
The main causes of myoclonus may be different. First of all, it is:
- hereditary form of myoclonus with autosomal dominant inheritance,
- brain tissue hypoxia,
- metabolic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, kidney or liver failure, diabetes)
- intoxication with nervous tissue, the administration of drugs that act on the nervous tissue,
- brain trauma, vascular lesions,
- infection (encephalitis, toxoplasmosis)
- multiple sclerosis,
- myoclonus as a component of genetic diseases in children (Tay-Sachs disease or Alpers).
With the defeat of the cerebral cortex occurs cortical form of myoclonus (hyperkinesis as an option). In it there are quick and strong muscle cramps. In infants myoclonus may be a benign form of epilepsy or myoclonic absences.
Cortical myoclonus may occur in progressive brain lesions — amyloidosis, or leukodystrophies gemohromtoze involving the gray matter of the brain, as well as brain damage due to tick-borne encephalitis, or toxoplasmosis.
A separate option myoclonus considered convulsive twitching of the calf muscle. These symptoms can occur during sleep (carotid twitches) or going to sleep, with no disturbances of consciousness. Spasm of the calf muscle occurs as a result of cerebral extrapyramidal system or due to calcium deficiency. Usually it is gradually progressing condition.
The symptoms of myoclonus may vary greatly depending on the type and severity of damage to the nervous system. Typically, this form of flinches individual muscle groups or the whole body, sometimes-like seizures.
This is usually short and involuntary muscle twitches occur in different parts of the body. Myoclonus can be generalized, local, regional. Local occur in the soft palate, face or tongue, sometimes making it difficult to speech. Generalized sometimes involve the entire limb or even half of the body. Especially hard myoclonus occur in the hip, shoulders, diaphragm. Increases with negative or positive emotions. Like many hyperkinesis — night form jerks absent.
The basis of diagnosis — myoclonus visual observation or a description by the patient. To clarify the need to conduct an electroencephalogram, issledvoanie blood tests on plasma levels of calcium, creatinine, urea, glucose. To clarify the causes necessary x-rays of the skull, brain MRI.
Myoclonus Treatment depends on the reasons which have caused it. When infectious and metabolic processes leading to the elimination of the causes of recovery. In epilepsy with anticonvulsants myoclonia shows the various groups under the supervision of a neurologist.
Weather favorable, it is possible to achieve stable reduce myoclonus.