Muscle cramps: causes and treatment
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Muscle cramps — a sharp, painful, and uncontrollable muscle spasms striated in the limbs or trunk. Very often occur in the legs, in the gastrocnemius muscle, as a result of metabolic disorders, unsustainable load on the lower limbs or injuries.
This involuntary contraction of individual muscles or muscle groups, for which there are sharp pains. Usually it is the muscles that are involved directly in the two joints simultaneously — front and rear thigh muscles, lower leg muscles, calf muscles, feet, muscles of the chest and abdomen, arm muscles.
Muscle cramps causes
Muscle cramps may occur occasionally even in completely healthy people, but usually occur when wearing uncomfortable shoes or high heels during pregnancy, as a result of stress, severe muscle fatigue, neurological disorders, colds, overheating, violation of vitamins exchange. Basically, muscle cramps in healthy people there are in the legs, sometimes there is an arm or torso.
Contribute to the development of muscle cramps such reasons as:
- Varicose veins,
- longitudinal and transverse flat foot,
- chronic infection, leading to metabolic disorders and endocrine glands,
- poisoning «muscle» poisons
- receiving diuretics, certain other medicines
- chronic physical and mental stress,
- prolonged sedentary work in static poses, blood circulation in the legs.
Separately isolated causes such as calcium and vitamin D deficiency, affecting neuromuscular transmission of impulses of phosphorus and magnesium, prolonged starvation, exhaustion with a deficit of blood glucose.
All these factors may affect both alone and the whole complex, which leads to severe manifestations of muscle cramps, breaking the overall health of the patient.
Muscle cramps clinical manifestations
Muscle cramps are usually nocturnal, but can also occur during the day. Usually occurs at rest, but leg cramps can occur when driving, such as when navigating. If they are infrequent, they are not very pronounced, they will usually indicate the shortage of vitamins and minerals in the body. Strongly pronounced muscle cramps symptoms may be the result of epileptic activity, trauma or tumor of the brain processes, diseases of the thyroid gland, or liver, spinal osteochondrosis.
Usually the symptoms of cramps in the calf and other muscles — severe pain caused sudden, strong tension, inability to step on the foot, firm and elastic arm like a ball for basketball.
Muscle cramps treatment
In the event of seizures must be first aid with the removal of muscle spasm. First of all, you need to stop the movement of the muscles and give discharge, gently stretch and stretch spasm area until the termination of seizures. After the disappearance of seizures should be given the ultimate getaway for the prevention of recurrent attacks. If after an attack of cramps muscle aches, it is necessary to make it cold and tight bandage. Sometimes it helps warming up and massage the muscles, followed by the imposition of bandages.
Muscle cramps Treatment is aimed at addressing the causes of their occurrence, with reference to the neurologist. Dietary adjustments are needed to supply enrichment with vitamins and minerals, if necessary intake of magnesium and calcium in addition, the abandonment of coffee and sugar, reducing load on the muscles during training, massages and conduct exercises to stretch the muscles of patients, the use of tempering contrast showers.