Mononeuropathy: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
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Mononeuropathy called isolated damage and violation of separately located peripheral nerve. Because of its anatomical location of some of the peripheral nerves are affected more often than all the others, as a result of it they give clinical manifestations. Most often develops mononeuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, the defeat of the ulnar nerve in the elbow, shoulder nerve damage in the upper arm and the defeat of the peroneal nerve in the calf muscle.
The most common cause of damage are:
- mechanical trauma, nerve strikes in the area,
- physical damage to the compression of the nerve, which is located close to the surface and passing through the bone (such as the elbow, knee, wrist, or shoulder)
- crush nerve in bedridden patients, long-term anesthesia, intoxicated, with paralysis,
- Improper application of gypsum, irrational use of crutches,
- long, forced position with the pressure on the nerves,
- nerve damage high or low temperature, radiation,
- leprosy and other infectious nerve damage,
- ischemic nerve damage.
The result is a local nerve damage in violation of its functions in a limited area. This leads to disruption of innervation in this body segment and focal disorders limb function, muscle tone and pain.
If it affects the nerve at any of the sites emit a number of typical manifestations, which include atrophy of separate groups of muscles, muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, weakness or partial paralysis of the legs. Also, there may be pain in the projection of the nerve trunks, feeling pricking needles or numbness full legs or arms.
Depending on the specific localization may be specific manifestations of individual nerve mononeuropathy:
- compression of the median nerve in the wrist passing provokes pain, numbness and a feeling of needles in the first three and the thumb. The skin turns white, there is a «pins and needles» in the shoulder and arm, increased pain during sleep or uncomfortable position hands. The muscles of the thumb undergo atrophy, weaken, there is no possibility to perform professional duties.
- defeat the ulnar nerve as it passes close to the skin. There is a weakness in the arm and paresthesias, muscle atrophy, the formation of pathological contractures of the joints on the bird’s legs type.
- radial nerve damage leads to weakness of muscles of the wrist and fingers, dangling hand, the sensitivity of the hands lost the rear. Often, transient state, quickly eliminated.
- peroneal nerve damage leads to weakness of the muscles that raise the foot. There is atrophy of the muscles, paresthesia, pain in the foot.
The basis of diagnosis — a clinical picture and typical complaints of patients, reducing the mobility of the limbs, an indication of injury or nerve damage zone. It requires detailed examination by a neurologist with the definition of sensitivity, mobility, muscle condition. Confirm the diagnosis using electromyography, x-ray the injured limb, and if necessary — tomography.
The treatment takes neurologist and if necessary trauma. Treatment can be conservative and surgical. By conservative therapy include fixing bandages, selection of comfortable work site, preventing additional injury. Assist injection of hormones in okolonevralnoe space. When severe pain and progressive state resorted to surgery with excision of compressing the nerve tissue. In the future, use of physiotherapy techniques, as well as bandages restricted movements in the elbow.
Weather favorable for life, but for the further work of professional activity can be unfavorable. It should be long-term treatment and recovery functions.