Dengue fever: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
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Dengue fever (five-day, giraffidae, date or articular) — an acute viral infection that gives a high long-term fever, joint and muscle damage, forms a skin rash, intoxication syndrome, nodal involvement, and the white part of the blood. In some patients additional manifestation can be hemorrhagic syndrome — increased bleeding. It is an infection with a complex by transferring, sick people and animals.
Causes Dengue fever
The causative agent of dengue fever — a particular virus family of arboviruses. Dangerous to humans are four main types. In addition, the virus is similar in structure to yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis. It is very resistant in the environment and animal blood. Can it circulate up to 2-3 months, in the dried form is stored up to five years.
In recent years, the incidence has increased dramatically among both tourists and locals in Thailand, Vietnam, China and Cuba, with increased mortality and severity. Periodically, once in 10-15 years there are epidemics of dengue fever. The disease has become topical for all countries due to mass tourism.
Methods of infection Dengue fever
The source of infection — a sick man, apes and bats. Carriers fever mosquito genus Aedes aegypti. After 10 days from the date on patients with blood-sucking mosquitoes are dangerous in terms of runaway infection. mosquito infection can be transferred over the next three months or more. Viruses can live in the body of the mosquito when the air temperature above 22 degrees, so the more northern latitudes, the fever is not common. Mainly affects children and visitors.
- Dengue fever: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Development mechanism Dengue fever
The virus enters the body through the bite of a mosquito. The bite inflammation may be, and as the end of the incubation period, the virus enters the bloodstream. Fever may be the classic and hemorrhagic. Viruses are actively affect monocytes. People can get sick with fever more than once, but always a primary infection occurs by the type of classical infection, while repeated, mostly local, may be hemorrhagic. Immunity lasts no more than two years, but may be another type of virus infection.
Symptoms dengue fever
The incubation period lasts about a week, rarely cutting up to three, or lengthened to 15 days. The disease begins abruptly with a sharp rise in temperature to 40 degrees. For a couple of hours before the onset of illness of the patients may observe headaches and weakness. Fever is accompanied by symptoms of intoxication, chills, pain of the back, sacrum, joint and vertebrates. Against fever patients braked sharply, they have no appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Other symptoms: face swells, expressed redness of the skin and conjunctiva of the eye. Typical changes in the pulse — quickening first, and then his sharp slowdown. Dramatically reduced number of white blood cells and platelets are reduced. Sharply increased lymph nodes, sore muscles and joints. Fever has two waves, with periods of remission in 1-3 days. Also typical manifestation of exanthema. It usually occurs on the first peak temperature and is similar to measles. It may be in the form of fine bruises, pimples or bumps. The rash itches, abundantly pours through the body and goes out on a limb, and then peel off.
Thai version of Dengue fever occurs with pronounced symptoms of toxemia, fever and bleeding, and bleeding. Always has a severe course and adverse effects, severe hemorrhagic shock and mortality rates of more than 5%. Major complications include fever psychosis, polyneuritis and meningitis, otitis and mumps.
Diagnostics Dengue fever
The basis of diagnosis — an indication of a residence in disadvantaged areas and mosquito bites. At the same point in the two waves of fever temperature, rash, sore muscles and joints, and swollen lymph nodes. Complementary data analysis of blood with a reduction in white blood cells and platelets, samples for virus isolation and bleeding or antibodies thereto in the blood.
Treatment Dengue fever
The specific treatment for dengue fever has not been developed. Apply hormones and antibiotics in the event of complications, as well as the symptomatic treatment, depending on the symptoms. inpatient treatment. When hemorrhagic form need a blood transfusion or plasma components, platelets.
Prevention Dengue fever
Today, it developed the vaccine against all four types of fever, but as yet there is no full-fledged preparations. Currently, the foundation of prevention — it is protection from mosquitoes and their control.