Cholesterol is not all that easy
- 545 views
The interesting thing is human knowledge. Our attitude to this or that object or phenomenon depends on the fact that at this point in time we know. And the attitude is, as new knowledge, can change to the opposite. A classic example is cholesterol (cholesterol, LDL).
The most stable stereotype against cholesterol is it hazardous to health. Atherosclerosis, heart attacks, strokes, it all hung on any innocent substance, and shoot with him these charges no one is going. Although even in the popular medical literature has long written about heterogeneity and ambiguity of cholesterol, as well as its important role in the metabolism of the body and life in general.
Cholesterol in physical properties is a liquid crystal and a liquid crystal is used in some thermometers.
Let’s try to dot the «e» in the most important aspects of knowledge about cholesterol … or cholesterol. By the way, how to write something?
«-in» Or «ol»?
From a chemical point of view, cholesterol — cyclic secondary monohydric alcohol, and if we use the current chemical nomenclature, it should be called cholesterol. «Ol» in this case and its relation to the alcohols is as ethanol, methanol, etc. That’s how it is called in the foreign literature; this is how it sounds in the price lists of advanced American clinical laboratories. While that’s sang-checker American version of Word from life behind, and emphasizes the term «cholesterol» in red. Tenacious stereotypes, do not say anything.
We ourselves are local
Over 80 percent of the cholesterol is synthesized by our own body. However, the missing 20 per cent — the value is quite critical, so its intake with food is essential for proper nutrition.
What is critical? Yes, that carries cholesterol in the body a number of very important functions, and substitutes for it cannot be found.
Cholesterol — one of the main components of the stones produced in the bile ducts and gall bladder in cholelithiasis.
The more cholesterol in the stone, the greater the likelihood that it will be possible to remove nehirurgcheskimi methods. Cholesterol’s stones normally float freely and are small in size.
Thus, it is necessary for the synthesis of cholesterol steroids, which include sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) and hormones of the adrenal cortex (aldosterone, hydrocortisone, cortisol), and vitamin D.
In addition, cholesterol builds up the frame of the cell membranes of our body; we can say this is the cement, on which we stand. There were no cholesterol and in the construction of the transport channels in the cell. So that the lower cholesterol — the «slush» of the membrane and the cells are functioning worse.
For the digestion of fatty foods is extremely important bile acids, which are part of bile. And they are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. On this good deed goes up to ¾ of all cholesterol.
It is this inscription on a bottle of vegetable oil should be, according to the marketing, is what sets this product, giving it a fashionable hue «healthy eating.» In fact, we are trite fool. The vegetable oil and should not be cholesterol. No milligrams. Because cholesterol — a product of animal origin only. And he lives in fatty meat, chicken eggs, butter, shrimp, oysters, liver, and other delicacies. Champion of the content of cholesterol — brains (6000 mg per 100 g), and antichempion — veal (total 80 mg).
The daily requirement for cholesterol is 350-500 mg. That’s how much should come from outside, and the rest, as we have said, synthesizes the body itself. This, by the way, and a heavy cobble in the garden devotees fasting and strict vegetarianism. It is impossible to replace butter with vegetable, meat — mushrooms and eggs — nuts. Well, there is no cholesterol in plant foods, it is not provided for their nature.
It would seem, and here atherosclerosis?
Once upon a time when the tubes were great, and the diagnostic capabilities of laboratory equipment — small, doctors have noticed that high cholesterol is associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Persecution of cholesterol and products are containing it. How many decades have passed, and in the minds of many people, a bunch of «cholesterol-heart attack» sits so tightly that knock it out is not possible.
In fact, cholesterol level — just one of the predisposing factors, and not the most important and main. Not so important amount of cholesterol entering the body, as his subsequent behavior in metabolism. Features of lipid metabolism in different people are different, and many of its violations inherited from generation to generation. So we can not say that atherosclerosis threatens everyone without exception lovers of steak with an egg.
Throughout the XX century for the study of cholesterol were awarded to 13 Nobel prizes.
Moreover, the same scientists noticed that people with high levels of cholesterol in the blood less likely to suffer from various forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.
Seemingly contradictory information is obtained. A lot of cholesterol is good or bad? When the diagnostic capabilities of laboratory medicine grew, it became clear that cholesterol in its pure form in our body does not exist, that he has three sources and three component parts of radically differing in properties and functions.
Cholesterol: Bad, bad, good
Being lipophilic substance cholesterol in blood plasma is not diluted. Consequently, in order to be transported, requiring specialized proteins-transporters. They are called apolipoproteins and complex «+ cholesterol transport protein» is called a lipoprotein. Most of these are three classes of lipoproteins: HDL (high-density lipoprotein, HDL), LDL (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein, VLDL).
HDL, which for a strong simplification is sometimes called «good cholesterol», is readily soluble in water, do not tend to precipitate. They transport cholesterol from the cells of various organs in the biochemical laboratory of the body — the liver. Their cholesterol is converted into bile acids and excreted from the body through the intestines.
LDL, which again for a strong simplification referred to as «bad cholesterol», is the main form of transport cholesterol in the body. They carry cholesterol to the cells of the body and between cells. Poorly soluble in water and are not a good tendency to precipitate. It is high levels of LDL and is considered one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis.
VLDL is quite a motley group that includes all who do not have enough space in the first two groups. Synthesized mainly in the liver, and their function is the transfer of cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to other organs. VLDL can be called «evil cholesterol» because they take an active part in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and deservedly considered the most atherogenic lipoproteins.
Bounds of decency
The more human HDL, the better — at least it is possible to assert the results of recent research. It goes without saying that everything is fine in moderation, so still need to know the permissible limits. Therefore, a good idea to do a genetic test is to detect (or detect) a failure in lipid metabolism, and then at least once a year to donate blood for analysis of total cholesterol level and its fractions.
Each frame has its own age, and women to determine the cholesterol level is higher than men, but it is considered that, in any case, in the male blood cholesterol should not be more than 7.17 mmol / l, and in the female — 7.77 mM / l. If the level is above — is an occasion to be concerned and seek medical advice. Also, it is necessary to take care if the ratio of HDL: LDL is higher than 1: 3.
In all other cases, it is not necessary to write off health problems only on cholesterol. At least the minimum physical activity, smoking cessation and alcohol abuse, a balanced diet, adequate rest and a philosophical outlook on life’s troubles — all this will help to live a full and long life. With cholesterol, but not heart attacks.