Aortic valve: Causes, Diagnostics and Forecast
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Aortic valve — a heart defect congenital or acquired nature, resulting in the formation of which is an incomplete closure of the aortic valve in the heart diastole. As a consequence of the reverse flow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricular cavity, with its overcrowding and congestion. It can be isolated or combined with other heart defects.
Aortic valve: Causes
Aortic insufficiency can be two types of origin:
- congenital, as one of the heart defects in children
- acquired, formed as a result of a variety of injuries and diseases of the heart.
The most common causes of acquired aortic valve regurgitation is rheumatic fever, infective endocarditis, syphilis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. As a result of all these reasons, there is a defeat of valves, their inflammation, thickening and fibrin overlay. Valves shrink, deform and can no longer fully closed position. Formed valve defect and circulatory disorders.
It may occur as a secondary aortic insufficiency defeat in arterial hypertension, aortic aneurysms, ankylosing spondylitis revmtoidnom.
Aortic valve: Circulatory disorders
Due to failure of the valve part of the blood is returned back from the aorta into the left ventricle. As a result of increasing stress and tension cavity left ventricle hypertrophy. The left side of the heart increases dramatically in size, which leads to disturbances in the body. As the progression of left ventricular defect develops heart failure and stagnation of blood in the pulmonary vessels. Formed pulmonary hypertension. The bodies of the systemic circulation to suffer from hypoxia.
Aortic valve: degree of severity
Depending on the severity are three degrees of malformation:
- first degree, with a slight stenosis holes of not less than 1.6-1.2 cm 2, the pressure gradient is between 10 and 35 mm Hg
- second degree, reasonable, with an area of 0.7-1.2 cm2 holes, the pressure gradient is from 36 to 65 mm Hg
- third degree, severe stenosis, with an area less than 0.7 cm2 holes and pressure gradient above 66 mm Hg
Aortic valve Manifestations
A long time, aortic regurgitation may not manifest itself in any way as long as circulatory disorders and changes in the heart are not made significant changes. The first symptoms of aortic valve — gain ripple in the head and neck, heartbeat sensation, especially in the supine position. There are attacks of palpitation, dizziness, feeling of faintness and fainting, especially when you change the position and load. There are anginal pain in my heart. Can be alone. Have compresses or oppressive character. Last long and poorly removed nitroglycerin. Accompanied by profuse sweating.
When there is an increase of decompensation blemish signs of left ventricular failure — shortness of breath with exercise, and at rest, orthopnea (shortness of breath when changing body position), attacks of breathlessness, weakness and fatigue during exercise. There are edema, signs of cerebral circulation. Patients pale because of the shortage of blood in the systemic circulation. Expressed throbbing carotids. On examination, listening to the heart and identified numerous specific symptoms characteristic of disorders of blood circulation and blood stagnation in a small circle.
Aortic valve: Diagnostics
The basis of diagnosis — complaints typical symptoms, attentive listening and careful examination of the heart, pressure measurement and pulse. An experienced cardiologist has these data can make a preliminary diagnosis.
Complements and clarifies the diagnosis of a set of studies:
- radiography ore cells
- Echocardiogram of the heart,
- ECG and phonocardiography,
- cardiac catheterization with pressure measurement in the cells.
- wrinkle treatment
The mainstay of treatment — correction of valvular defects surgical, prosthetic valves. In addition to surgery A combination of drug therapy.
Aortic valve: Forecast
Aortic valve develops slowly. Survival at it from the moment of diagnosis up to 10 years, even without surgery. When prosthetic valves outlook improves. Complicated situation at complication aortic insufficiency in combination with atherosclerosis, heart failure and angina. Since joining heart failure lifetime of about two years.